The Bristol stool chart
The Bristol Stool Chart was devised by Dr. Ken Heaton at the University of Bristol UK. It is a well known medical aid which helps to classify, distinguish and differentiate human faeces. It was first published in the Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology in 1997. The shape and texture of your stool depends on how much time it spends in the colon. The kind of food one eats and the diseases affecting the body also have a role to play.

The normality of ones' stools is determined by comparing them to the Bristol Stool Form scale.
The Bristol Stool Chartdivides human feces into 7 categories:
• Type 1: Individual hard lumps; It has a hard texture almost like pebbles. The stool is hard to pass and can require a lot of straining.

• Type 2: Shaped like a sausage with lumps. It is hard and can exert a lot of pressure on the rectum while making an exit from the body.

• Type 3: Sausage shaped with surface cracks. It is relatively softer and is easy to pass.

• Type 4: Again sausage shaped with a smooth and soft surface without any cracks and lumps. This is the most desirable state of stools and does not exert any pressure in the anal and rectal cavity while being discharged.

• Type 5: Soft blobs of feces with defined sides and edges. They are of a softer consistency and are easily passed.

• Type 6: Essentially of a mushy consistency. Ragged edged fluffy pieces which are softer than desired. They are generally accompanied with a foul smell.

• Type7: Entirely watery with no solids. It is mostly indicative of a diarrhea like situation.
When the stools coming out of the anus are extremely thin and ribbon like they may be indicative of colon cancer, scar tissue or any mass in the colon which is obstructing the faeces and inhibiting them to acquire the rounded shape of the colon.
Bristol stool Chart for London Colonics
The Bristol Stool Chart
is a very effective tool when it comes to classifying human feces. It is a guide which can be referred to from time to time. However, any sudden change in the shape, size, color and texture of stools needs to be followed up with one’s doctor.
Type 1: Separate hard lumps, like nuts
Typical for acute
dysbiosis. These stools lack a normal amorphous quality, because bacteria are missing and there is nothing to retain water. The lumps are hard and abrasive, the typical diameter ranges from 1 to 2 cm (0.4–0.8”), and they‘re painful to pass, because the lumps are hard and scratchy. There is a high likelihood of anorectal bleeding from mechanical laceration of the anal canal. Typical for post-antibiotic treatments and for people attempting fibre-free (low-carb) diets. Flatulence isn‘t likely, because fermentation of fibre isn‘t taking place.

Type 2: Sausage-like but lumpy
Represents a combination of Type 1 stools impacted into a single mass and lumped together by fibre components and some bacteria. Typical for organic
constipation. This type is the most destructive by far because its size is near or exceeds the maximum opening of the anal canal‘s aperture (3.5 cm). It‘s bound to cause extreme straining during elimination, and most likely to cause anal canal laceration, hemorrhoidal prolapse, or diverticulosis. Anorectal pain, hemorrhoidal disease, anal fissures, withholding or delaying of defecation, and a history of chronic constipation are the most likely causes. Minor flatulence is probable. A person experiencing these stools is most likely to suffer from irritable bowel syndrome because of continuous pressure of large stools on the intestinal walls. Adding supplemental fibre to expel these stools is dangerous, because the expanded fibre has no place to go, and may cause hernia, obstruction, or perforation of the small and large intestine alike.

Type 3: Like a sausage but with cracks in the surface
This form has all of the characteristics of Type 2 stools, but the transit time is faster. Typical for latent constipation. Flatulence is minor, because of
dysbiosis. The fact that it hasn‘t became as enlarged as Type 2 suggests that the defecations are regular. Straining is required. Some of the adverse effects typical for Type 2 stools are likely for type 3, especially the rapid deterioration of hemorrhoidal disease.

Type 4: Like a sausage or snake, smooth and soft.

This form is normal for someone defecating once daily. The diameter is 1 to 2 cm (0.4–0.8”). The larger diameter suggests a longer transit time or a large amount of dietary fibre in the diet.

Type 5: Soft blobs with clear-cut edges
This is considered ideal. It is typical for a person who has regular stools and a healthy digestive system.

Type 6: Fluffy pieces with ragged edges, a mushy stool
These kind of stools may suggest a slightly hyperactive colon (fast motility), possibly excess dietary potassium, or sudden dehydration or spike in blood pressure related to stress (both cause the rapid release of water and potassium from blood plasma into the intestinal cavity). It can also indicate a hypersensitive personality prone to stress, too many spices, drinking water with a high mineral content, or the use of osmotic (mineral salts) laxatives.

Type 7: Watery, no solid pieces
This, of course, is diarrhoea; It‘s typical for people (especially young children and infirm or convalescing adults) affected by faecal impaction—a condition that follows or accompanies type 1 stools, and
gut irritation. During paradoxical diarrhoea the liquid contents of the small intestine (up to 1.5–2 litres) have no place to go but down, because the large intestine is stuffed with impacted stools throughout its entire length. Some water gets absorbed, the rest accumulates in the rectum. The reason this type of diarrhoea is called paradoxical is not because its nature isn‘t known or understood, but because being severely constipated and experiencing diarrhoea all at once, is, indeed, a paradoxical situation. Unfortunately, it‘s all too common.